Sociopragmatics of Code Switching and Code Mixing in Reconciliation Case Proceedings: Shariah Courts of Northern Nigeria

Mohammed Ahmad Ado, Siti Jamilah Bidin

Abstract


Due to the peculiarity of the spoken language identified among parties involved in Reconciliation Case Proceedings (RCP) and their arbitrators in the Shariah Reconciliation courts, this paper explores some sociopragmatic aspects of the Hausa natives (Northern Nigeria, West Africa) Shariah reconciliation Courts judicial discourse. To this end, 12 various case proceedings of family disputes on marital issues were recorded through audiovisual recordings. The data were coded and analysed using Nvivo 10, focusing, amongst others, on Searle’s taxonomy of speech acts of expressiveness. It was found that Code Switching and Code Mixings (CSCM) appeared/employed constantly by almost all classes of speakers during RCP. The findings revealed that it is a sociopragmatic culture, behaviour and attribute of Hausa speakers of using Hausa switched, lexical mixed of Hausa-English or Hausa-Arabic CSCM expressive utterances in RCP. Arabic Terminologies and Hausanised of Arabic lexical are also employed by speakers in order to affirm, assert reciprocity, show respect, express gratitude or intention, offer defence, minimise imposition, and seek confirmation or explanation as well as Generic or honorific names/titles in RCP. Finally, the paper demonstrates that it is a cultural practice that during RCP, Hausa language is dominantly used as a medium of communication, hence, sometimes due to the Arabic and Islamic cultural influence of Hausa natives as well as being English as an official language in the Nigerian settings, CSCM of both the three languages is found to be part of the common feature of RCP within Bauchi state Shariah Commission of Nigeria.


Keywords


Sociopragmatics; Code Mixing and Switching; Reconciliation Proceedings; Speech Acts; Shariah Law

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adebayo, T. A. (ND). An evaluation of code-mixing and switching strategies on the efficacy of primary 1 pupils in numeracy in Kwara State. The Abuja regional Hornby School: language lessons from Africa, 23.

Agbedo, C. U. (2008). A speech Act Analysis of political Discourse in the Nigerian Print Media. Ekenga Journal of International African studies.

Agbedo, C. U., Krisagbedo, E. C., & Buluan, D. (2013). Socio-pragmatic analysis of Boko Haram’s language of insurgency in Nigeria: Implications for global peace and security. Developing Country Studies, 3(8), 45-63.

Agyekum, K. (2008). The pragmatics of Akan greetings. Discourse studies, 10(4), 493-516.

Alenezi, A. A. (2010). Students’ language attitude towards using code-switching as a medium of instruction in the college of health sciences: An exploratory study. ARECLS, 7, 1-22.

Alexander, K., Batchelor, D., Durand, A., and Savage, T. (2004). Truth commissions and transitional justice: Update on a select bibliography on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission Debate. The Journal of Law and Religion, 525-565.

Alexander, N. (2009). Afrikaans as a language of reconciliation, restitution and nation building. In Roots-conference held at the University of the Western Cape, 22-23.

Alo, M. A., & Soneye, T. O. (2014). Haggling as a sociopragamtic strategy in selected urban markets: An amalgam of English and Nigerian languages. Marang: Journal of Language and Literature, 24, 43-63.

Ariffin, K. D. M. S. H., & Husin, M. S. (2011). Code-switching and code-mixing of English and Bahasa Malaysia in content-based classrooms: Frequency and attitudes. The Linguistics Journal, 5(1), 220-247.

Auer, P. (Ed.). (2013). Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. Routledge.

Ayeomoni, M. O. (2006). Code-switching and code-mixing: Style of language use in childhood in Yoruba speech community. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 15(1), 90-99.

Banjo, L. A. (1996). Making a virtue of necessity: An overview of the English language in Nigeria. Ibadan University Press.

Barkindo, I. (2009). Sulhu in Islamic constitutional law: The role of Emirate in dispute resolution. In The Eleventh Annual Judges Conference organized and held at Kango conference hotel by center for Islamic legal studies institute of administration Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Bertram, A. O. (2002). Conversational Roles and Social Functions of Code-Switching among Igbo Bilinguals. Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 64, 2002

Blackburn, C. (2007) Producing legitimacy: reconciliation and the negotiation of aboriginal rights in Canada. Journal of the royal anthropological institute, 13(3): 621-638.

Blattner, G., & Fiori, M. (2013). Virtual social network communities: An investigation of language learners' development of sociopragmatic awareness and multiliteracy skills. CALICO journal, 29(1), 24-43.

Borneman, J. (2002) Reconciliation after ethnic cleansing: Listening, retribution, affiliation. Public Culture, 14(2): 281-304.

Boyatzis, R. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Braun, V. Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2). Pp. 77-101. ISSN 1478-0887. University of the West of England.

Brice, A., & Anderson, R. (1999). Code mixing in a young bilingual child. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21(1), 17-22.

Cao, Y. (2014). On the Building of Talent Pools of Court Interpreters in Mainland China. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD) (p. 134).

Carr, C. T., Schrok, D. B. and Dauterman, P. (2012) Speech acts within Facebook status messages. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 0261927X12438535.

Chamo, I. Y. (2013). Language and globalization: expression of love in Hausa society and its representations in Hausa films. Paper presented in the first national conference on studies in Hausa language, literature and culture held in the center for the study of Nigerian languages, Bayero University, Kano Nigeria.

Chung, H. H. (2006). Code switching as a communicative strategy: A case study of Korean–English bilinguals. Bilingual research journal, 30(2), 293-307.

Corntassel, J. (2009) Indigenous storytelling, truth-telling, and community approaches to reconciliation. ESC: English Studies in Canada, 35(1):137-159.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, Conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New Jersey: Pearson Education. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Daikuhara, M. (1986). A study of compliments from a cross-cultural perspective: Japanese vs American English. The working paper in Educational Linguistics. 2: 103-134.

Gibson, J. L. (2004) Does truth lead to reconciliation? Testing the causal assumptions of the South African truth and reconciliation process. American Journal of Political Science, 48(2): 201-217.

Gummi, H. J. L. H. (2009) An overview of the modus operandi of the multi-door court houses. In The Eleventh Annual Judges Conference organised and held at Kango conference hotel by centre for Islamic legal studies institute of administration Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Hale, S. (2004). The discourse of court interpreting: Discourse practices of the law, the witness and the interpreter. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Hamber, B. Kelly, G. (2004) A working definition of reconciliation. Belafast: Democratic Dialogue.

Hamber, B. Kelly, G. (2008) The challenge of reconciliation: Translating theory into practice. ASustainable PEACE? 3.

Humphrey, M. (2005) Reconciliation and the therapeutic state. Journal of intercultural studies, 26(3): 203-220.

Hymes, D. (1972). Model of interaction of language and social life. In John J. Gumperz & Dell Hymes (ed.), Directions in sociolinguistics. The Ethnography of communication, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 35-71.

Hymes, D. (1972b). On communication competence. In: John B. Pride- John Holmes (ed.), 269-293.

Jianmin, C. (2014). Lawyer’s Communication in the Courtroom: A Multimodal Perspective. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD) (p. 109).

Kamalu, I., & Agangan, R. (2011). A critical discourse analysis of Goodluck Jonathan’s declaration of interest in the PDP presidential primaries. Language, Discourse and Society, 1(1), 32-54.

Keffi, S. U. D. (2009). The legal, social and economic roles of As-sulh from the perspective of jurisprudence (Fiqh) of the Maalik school. In The Eleventh Annual Judges Conference organised and held at Kango conference hotel by centre for Islamic legal studies institute of administration Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Keshavjee, M. (2013) Islam, Sharia and Alternative Dispute Resolution: Mechanisms for Legal Redress in the Muslim Community (Vol. 6). IB Tauris.

Keyton, J. (2015) Communication research: Asking questions, finding answers (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Khoyi, A. M. Behnam, B. (2014) Discourse of Law: Analysis of Cooperative Principles and Speech Acts in Iranian Law Courts. Asian Journal of Education and e-Learning, 2(4).

Khoyi, A. M. Behnam, B. (2014) Discourse of Law: Analysis of Cooperative Principles and Speech Acts in Iranian Law Courts. Asian Journal of Education and e-Learning, 2(4).

Koike, D. A. (1987). Code switching in the bilingual Chicano narrative. Hispania, 148-154.

Kreidler, C. W. (1998) Introducing English semantic: 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Kreidler, C. W. (1998) Introducing English semantic: 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Kuhn, E. D. (1999). ‘I just want to make love to you’-Seductive strategies in blues lyrics. Journal of pragmatics, 31(4), 525-534.

Li, J. (2014). Keynote Address III Translating Deontic Modality into English as a Discursive Reflection. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD) (p. 27).

Lu, S. (2014). The Interpreter’s Mediation of Power and Control Through Interruptions in the Chinese Courtroom Discourse. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD) (p. 140).

Mann, S. T. (2009). You're Fired': An Application of Speech Act Theory to 2 Samuel 15.23—16.14. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 33(3), 315-334.

Marmaridou, S. (2011). Pragmalinguistics and sociopragmatics. Foundations of pragmatics, 77-106.

Medubi, O. (2010). A cross-cultural study of silence in Nigeria–an ethnolinguistic approach. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 5(1), 27-44.

Mendeloff, D. (2004). Truth‐seeking, truth‐telling, and post conflict peace-building: Curb the enthusiasm? 1. International Studies Review, 6(3), 355-380.

Muhammad, A. S. I. (2015). Language Use Construction in Discourse: Exploring Youth Identities in Hausa Rap Music. Hemispheres, 30(3), 45.

Nwoye, O. G. (1992). Linguistic politeness and socio-cultural variations of the notion of face. Journal of Pragmatics 18: 309-328.

Obeng, S. G. (1999) Grammatical Pragmatics: Power in Akan Judicial Discourse. Pragmatics, 9(2).

Ogunbowale, M. O. (2012). “In the Ghetto, Life no easy for we": The Construction and Negotiation of Identity in Ajegunle Raga (Doctoral dissertation).

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Philpott, D. (2007) what religion brings to the politics of transitional justice. Journal of International Affairs, 61(1): 93-110.

Ramsbotham, O. Miall, H. Woodhouse, T. (2011). Contemporary conflict resolution. Polity.

Searle, J. (1969) Speech acts. An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. (1975) Indirect speech acts. In: Peter Cole and Jerrold Morgan (eds), Syntax and Semantics, volume 3: Speech Acts, 41-58. London: Academic Press.

Searle, J. (1979) Expression and meaning: studies in the theory of speech acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sharma, P. Chrisman, S. J. J. (2007). Toward a reconciliation of the definitional issues in the field of corporate entrepreneurship*. In Entrepreneurship, 83-103. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Shiyao, Z. (2014). Court Interpreting and Judicial Justice. In The Fourth International Conference on Law, Language and Discourse (LLD) (p. 169).

Shuy, R. W. (2007) Language in the American courtroom. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(1‐2): 100-114.

Singh, H., Kaur, P., & Thuraisingam, T. (2011). Language for reconciliation in religious discourse: A critical discourse analysis of contradictions in sermons explored through the activity theory framework.

Singh, S. K. S. (2012). Code-switching Among Military Cadet Officers during Group Interaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 66, 64-75.

Skiba, R. (1997). Code switching as a countenance of language interference. The internet TESL journal, 3(10), 375-379.

Thagard, E. K., Hilsmier, A. S., & Easterbrooks, S. R. (2011). Pragmatic language in deaf and hard of hearing students: Correlation with success in general education. American annals of the deaf, 155(5), 526-534.

Titscer, S. Meyer, M. Wodak, R. & Vetter, E. (2002). Ethnographic method: Methods of text and discourse analysis. Sage Publishers Ltd 6 Bonhill Street London EC2A 4PU.

Tyrmi, H. (2004). Do You Want to Know a Secret? A Linguistic Study on the Description of Love in the Lyrics of The Beatles. Unpublished masters thesis, English Department, University of Joensuu, Finland.

Usman, J.A. M. (2009). Practice and procedure in matrimonial arbitrations. In The Eleventh Annual Judges Conference organised and held at Kango conference hotel by centre for Islamic legal studies institute of administration Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

VanAntwerpen, J. (2008). Reconciliation reconceived: Religion, secularism, and the language of transition. The politics of reconciliation in multicultural societies, 25-47.

Wali, H. J. A. B. (2009). The viability of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) to sharia-based states. In The Eleventh Annual Judges Conference organised and held at Kango conference hotel by centre for Islamic legal studies institute of administration Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Wallace, N. P. (2005). Shakespeare Biography and the Theory of Reconciliation in Edward Dowden and James Joyce. ELH, 72(4): 799-822.

Wang, B. & Zhang, Y. (2014). The Characteristics and Translation of Legal Terms in English and Chinese. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD)

Wang, X. (2014). An Analysis of Legal Language Used by a Strong Judge in Court: A Case Study. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD), 82.

Wang, X. (2014). An Analysis of Legal Language Used by a Strong Judge in Court: A Case Study. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD), 82.

Watson, G. (2006). The bedroom blues: love and lust in the lyrics of early female blues artists. Language and Literature, 15(4), 331-356.

Watson, G. (2012). Pragmatic acts of love. Language and Literature, 21(2), 150-169.

Watson-Gegeo, K. A., & Ulichny, P. (1988). Ethnographic Inquiry into Second Language Acquisition and Instruction.

Wilson, R. (2001) The politics of truth and reconciliation in South Africa: Legitimizing the post-apartheid state. Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, R. A. (2003). Anthropological studies of national reconciliation processes. Anthropological Theory, 3(3), 367-387.

Wolfson, N. (1983). Sociolinguistics and language acquisition. Elliot Judd (ed.), Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Yamamoto, E. K., Obrey, A. K. (2009) Reframing Redress: A Social Healing through Justice Approach to United States-Native Hawaiian and Japan-Ainu Reconciliation Initiatives. Asian Am. LJ, 16, 5.

Yu, S. (2010) A study on the court language. Beijing: Peking University Press. 87

Zhang, Q. Gong, M. (2014) A Comparative Study on Modality in Chinese and American Criminal Judgments. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD), 225.

Zhang, Y. (1999). Self-deprecation Phenomena in Chinese Face-work: Ritual and Pragmatic Implications.

Zhou, H. (2014). A Case-based Study of Translating Legal Terms. In The Fourth International Conference On Law, Language and Discourse (LLD)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21462/asiantefl.v1i2.19

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License
ASIAN TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics by http://www.asian-tefl.com is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.asian-tefl.com.
View My Stats
Indexed and Abstracted by:

          


ASIAN TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics

web: www.asian-tefl.com

email: asian.teflj@gmail.com

Publisher: Asosiasi Dosen Linguistik, Pendidikan Bahasa, dan Sastra di Indonesia (Lecturer Association of Linguistics, Language Teaching, and Literature Studies in Indonesia)

Address: Prodi Sastra Inggris, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Jl Imam Bonjol No. 207, Semarang