Investigating Intercultural Teaching Competence among Moroccan Teachers in Tertiary Education

Mouhssine Echcharfy


Intercultural learning is a new pedagogy that encourages learners to establish relationships between their own culture and the other culture, managing dysfunctions and mediating differences. These skills and others will enable learners to develop intercultural competence and help them become intercultural speakers/mediators (Byram, 1997). However, learners’ intercultural competence cannot be developed without an appropriate intervention and guidance on the part of the teacher who represents a central element in the intercultural learning process. Thus, the issue at stake is the degree to which teachers demonstrate knowledge of skills and competencies they need for the development of students’ intercultural competence and awareness. In this respect, the present study is an attempt to explore the extent to which the teachers’ competencies and skills meet the specifications formulated in the literature regarding intercultural teaching competence. It included 25 Moroccan university teachers who have already taught culture at the university. In line with the objective of the study, a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was adopted as a major data collection procedure. The results revealed that the majority of Moroccan university teachers demonstrated negative attitudes towards and lack of awareness regarding the intercultural teaching competencies provided. It also turned out that the majority of teachers’ competencies do not meet the specifications formulated in the literature, regarding intercultural teaching competence. In light of the results obtained, several implications are derived from the study for decision makers and teachers.


intercultural learning; intercultural teaching competence, Moroccan university teachers.

Full Text:



AFS Intercultural Programs. (2016). Tools to suspend judgment. Retrieved from

Bennett, M. J. (1997). How not to be a fluent fool: understanding the cultural dimensions of language. In A. E. Fantini, & J. C. Richards (Eds.). New ways in teaching culture. new ways in TESOL series II: innovative classroom techniques (pp. 16–21). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Bennett, M.J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179-95.

Bodrič, R., & Stojičić, V. (2013). Multicultural encounters in EFL classrooms. Linguistics and Literature, 11(1). 35- 46.

Breka, O., & Petravić, A. (2015). Foreign language teachers and the intercultural dimension in primary education. Croatian Journal of Education, 17(2), 27-41.

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Publisher.

Byram, M. (2009). Intercultural speaker and the pedagogy of foreign language education. Deardorff , D. K. (Ed.). The sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 321-332). USA: SAGE Publications.

Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Strakey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Corbett, J. (2003). An intercultural approach to English language teaching. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Deardorff, D. K. (2004). The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a students’ outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). North Carolina State University, USA.

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies International Education, 10(3), 241-266.

Deardorff, D. K. (2009). The sage handbook of intercultural competence. USA: SAGE publications.

Dimitrov, N., Dawson, D. L., Olsen, K. C., & Meadows, K. N. (2014). Developing the intercultural competence of graduate students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 44(3), 86-103.

Fantini, A., & Tirmizi, A. (2006). Exploring and assessing intercultural competence. Brattleboro, VT: Federation EIL. Retrieved from

Howard-Hamilton, M. F., Richardson, B. J., & Shuford, B. (1998). Promoting multicultural education: A holistic approach. College Student Affairs Journal, 18, 5–17.

Huber, J., & Reynolds, C. (Eds.). (2014). Developing intercultural competence through education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Jackson, J. (2012). The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication. New York, NY: Routledge.

Janku, M. (2017). The teacher, as a cultural mediator between two languages. Austrian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(2), 8-13.

Kačkere, A., Lázár, I., & Matei, G.S. (2007). Planning intercultural communication workshop. In Lázár, I., Huber-Kriegler, M., Lussier, D., Matei, G.S., & Peck, C. (Eds), Developing and assessing intercultural communicative competence (pp. 11-18). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Lázár, I., Huber-Kriegier, M., Lussier, D., Mtei, G. S., & Peck, C. (Eds.). (2007). Developing and assessing intercultural communicative competence: A guide for language teachers and teacher educators. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Miculescu, R. M., & Bazgan, M (2017). Intercultural competence as a component of the teachers' competence profile. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 9(3), 17-41.

Pajak-Wazna, E. (2013). Teachers’ intercultural competence and teacher education: A case of Poland. European Scientific Journal, 1(2), 318–322. Retrieved from

Spitzberg, B. H & Changnon, G. (2009), Conceptualizing intercultural competence. In Deardorff (Ed.), The sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 2-52). USA: SAGE Publications.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2013). Intercultural competences: Conceptual and operational framework. Paris, France: UNESCO.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
ASIAN TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at
View My Stats
Indexed and Abstracted by:


ASIAN TEFL: Journal of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics



Publisher: Asosiasi Dosen Linguistik, Pendidikan Bahasa, dan Sastra di Indonesia (Lecturer Association of Linguistics, Language Teaching, and Literature Studies in Indonesia)

Address: Prodi Sastra Inggris, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Jl Imam Bonjol No. 207, Semarang